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Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI) has proven itself to be a crucial technology in modern diagnostics, especially involving soft tissue diagnostics. It is interesting to note that, due to stigma around terminology and an interest in preventing negativ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) MRI is a medical imaging application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). MRI is used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body. Radiology: a medical discipline that uses medical imaging to diagnose & treat diseases The application of nuclear magnetic resonance best known to the general public is magnetic resonance imaging for medical diagnosis and magnetic resonance microscopy in research settings. However, it is also widely used in biochemical studies, notably in NMR spectroscopy such as proton NMR , carbon-13 NMR , deuterium NMR and phosphorus-31 NMR An MRI scan of the brain. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) — also known as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) — is a medical technique used to take images of different parts of the human body to help with diagnosis Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has reached the point at which it is clear that such images will have a definite role in clinical practice. This article reviews the basic physical principles of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, its current uses in disorders of the central nervous system, and its potential future applications in this field

Nuclear magnetic resonance refers to a physical principle—response of nuclei to a magnetic field. Many nuclei have a mag-netic moment—they behave like spinning bar magnets (next page, left). These spin-ning magnetic nuclei can interact with externally applied magnetic fields, produc-ing measurable signals MRI was originally called NMRI (nuclear magnetic resonance imaging), but nuclear was dropped to avoid negative associations. Certain atomic nuclei are able to absorb radio frequency energy when placed in an external magnetic field; the resultant evolving spin polarization can induce a RF signal in a radio frequency coil and thereby be detected

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging of sap flow in plants Carel W. Windt Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor op gezag van de rector magnificus van Wageningen Universiteit, Prof. Dr. M.J. Kropff In het openbaar te verdedigen op maandag 1 oktober 2007 des namiddags te vier uur in de Aula. ii Magnetic resonance imaging, in het Nederlands soms aangeduid met kernspintomografie, is een medische beeldvormingstechniek die wordt gebruikt voor het in kaart brengen van het lichaam en bepaalde lichaamsprocessen. MRI-scanners werken met een sterk magneetveld en radiogolven waarmee de organen in het lichaam zichtbaar kunnen worden gemaakt. Aan MRI komen geen röntgenstralen of ioniserende straling te pas, waardoor het zich onderscheidt van CT- of CAT- en PET-scans. MRI wordt in. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is a tomographic imaging technique that produces maps of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal in a sample. The signal from a volume element (voxel) in the sample is represented as an intensity of a picture element (pixel) in an image of the object Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of tumour growth and neovasculature performance in vivo reveals Grb7 as a novel antiangiogenic target NMR Biomed . 2013 Sep;26(9):1059-69. doi: 10.1002/nbm.2918 MRIL (Magnetic Resonance Imager Log) is a mark of NUMAR Corporation. Some Basics Nuclear magnetic resonance refers to a physical principle—response of nuclei to a magnetic field. Many nuclei have a mag- netic moment—they behave like spinning bar magnets (next page, left)

These techniques employ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and spectroscopy. Accordingly, several experimental animal models of liver injury and steatosis produced in rats by ethanol, azaserine, L-ethionine, carbon tetrachloride, and D-galactosamine Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Uses And Purpose Of The Technology. These detailed images allow physicians to evaluate various parts of the body and... Radiotracers In Nuclear Medicine. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical science, which uses small amounts of... Radiology: X-ray and Body. Imaging of groundwater with nuclear magnetic resonance Marian Hertrich ETH Zurich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Schafmattstrasse 33, 8093 Zurich, 228 M. Hertrich/Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 53 (2008) 227-248. current IðtÞ is passed through the transmitter loop for Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in the clinical evaluation of neurological problems of the newborn and their subsequent evolution Sonography and NMR Imaging in Rheumatoid Gonarthritis 12 July 2009 | Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, Vol. 15, No. Ten patients with definite multiple sclerosis underwent hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with a 3.5 kilogauss superconducting magnet, using the inversion recovery and spin-echo techniques of signal acquisition. Results were compared with high-resolution x-ray computed tomography. Spin-echo image

(Nuclear) Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Stanford Universit

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging technology that produces three dimensional detailed anatomical images. It is often used for disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring. It is based on sophisticated technology that excites and detects the change in the direction of the rotational axis of protons found in the water that makes up living tissues Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a noninvasive imaging method that provides spectroscopic information in addition to the image that is generated by MRI alone.. Whereas traditional magnetic resonance imaging generates a black-and-white image in which brightness is determined primarily by the T1 or T2 relaxation times of the tissue being imaged, the spectroscopic information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging technique that typically operates on the scale of millimetres to micrometres. Conventional MRI is based on the manipulation of nuclear spins with radio-frequency fields, and the subsequent detection of spins with induction-based techniques NMR Spectroscopy is abbreviated as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the study of molecules by recording the interaction of radiofrequency (Rf) electromagnetic radiations with the nuclei of molecules placed in a strong magnetic field Magnetic resonance imaging is a widely used noninvasive medical imaging technique to visualize the inner part of human body. It applied the basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which provides both chemical and physical information of molecules

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Definition Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the newest, and perhaps most versatile, medical imaging technology available. Doctors can get highly refined images of the body's interior without surgery, using MRI. By using strong magnets and pulses of radio waves to manipulate the natural magnetic properties in the body, this. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been accepted widely as a non-destructive analytical technique in food processing technology due to their sensitivity, non-invasiveness, rapidness, and cost-effectiveness. Moreover, the ability to provide real-time information on products during and after processing has been linked to the use of these.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is a giant leap in the study of the human body, providing extremely precise imaging. 1980s Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner Technician And Woman Patient Made by M & D Technology, Aberdeen, Scotland NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: Manufacturer (Section D) GE MEDICAL SYSTEMS, LLC: 3200 n grandview blvd. waukesha, WI 53188 : Manufacturer Contact: jason kelly 3200 n grandview blvd: waukesha, WI MDR Report Key: 10939570: MDR Text Key: 219303384: Report Number: 2183553-2020-00017 The quality of the images produced by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging has steadily improved over the past five years. Images of the head, thorax, and abdomen have clearly shown the normal anatomy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of creating images of the inside of opaque organs in living organisms as well as detecting the amount of bound water in geological structures. It is primarily used to visualise pathological or other physiological alterations of living tissues as well as to estimate the permeability of rock to hydrocarbons

Image Formation by Induced Local Interactions: Examples Employing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance P. C. LAUTERBUR 1 Nature volume 242 , pages 190-191 ( 1973 ) Cite this articl What is the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging? At resonance, the nuclear magnets tend to spin in phase with one another and a portion of the nuclear magnets are ele- vated to the excited state with their magnetic moments opposed to the applied magnetic field. In this example, a net magnetization is produced in the XY plane

An Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Craig M. Dowell Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 Abstract An overview of the significant historical events in the development of MRI is presented. A summary of the equipment and results of Magnetic Resonance Imagine are presented Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Department of Special Imaging, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. The Department of Surgery, the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston. Department of Radiology, City of Faith Medical Center, Tulsa, Oklahoma. From the Department of Radiology, the.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging1,2 is now an established tool in clinical imaging and competes favourably with conventional X-ray computerized tomography (CT) scanning3. The drive behind. Introduction. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1) spectroscopy and imaging are arguably the most versatile techniques in use in biomedical research today.The phenomenon of NMR was first discovered in the 1940s and was primarily the domain of physicists ( Bloch et al. 1946; Purcell et al. 1946).During the next 50 yr or so, applications of NMR developed rapidly and were used first by chemists

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging technology that produces three dimensional detailed anatomical images. It is often used for disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring. It is based on sophisticated technology that excites and detects the change in the direction of the rotational axis of protons found in the water that makes up living tissues Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Wel-Screen provides technicians and researchers with accurate, timely and cost-effective Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR testing is a technique which can be used for quality control, to identify an unknown compound in research, or to determine the content and the purity of a sample Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and MRI) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is an important tool in chemical analysis. As the name implies, it uses the spin magnetic moments of nuclei (particularly hydrogen) and resonant excitation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses the same principle to get an image (of the inside of the body for example)

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance & Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  1. Since the late 1950s, the term nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been the preferred name for this same physical process. When imaging methods using the NMR signal were first developed, the term NMR imaging was applied to them. At least partially because of patients' concerns over the dangers of nuclear energy, nuclear radioactivity, and the.
  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Principles, Methods, and Techniques Perry Sprawls, Ph.D., FACR, FAAPM Professor Department of Radiology Emory University Atlanta, Georgia. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Introduction And Overview.....25 Magnetic Nuclei.
  3. NMR - MRI/S techniques and instruments are available at two different MagLab facilities in Florida: The NMR-MRI/S Facility at MagLab headquarters near Florida State University in Tallahassee and the Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Facility (AMRIS) housed within the McKnight Brain Institute at the University of Florida in Gainesville
  4. nance (NMR) imaging, rather than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). If the word nuclear is of concern to the public, education is the solution. It should be made clear that the nuclear in NMR is not related to ionizing ra• diation, nuclear warfare or nuclear power plants. The term nuclear in NMR is used to specify the part of the atom.
  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the study of molecules by recording the interaction of radiofrequency (Rf) electromagnetic radiations with the nuclei of molecules placed in a strong magnetic field. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was first detected experimentally at the end of 1945, nearly concurrently with the work groups Felix Bloch, Stanford University and Edward Purcell.
  6. SummaryBackground Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relies on magnetisation of hydrogen nuclei (protons) of water molecules in tissue as source of the signal. This technique has been valuable for studying tissues that contain significant amounts of water, but biological settings with low proton content, notably the lungs, are difficult to image

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging synonyms, Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging pronunciation, Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging translation, English dictionary definition of Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. n Modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make use of this effect. The NMR signal observed following an initial excitation pulse decays with time due to both spin relaxation and any inhomogeneous effects which cause different spins in the sample to precess at different rates T1 - NUCLEAR MAGNETIC-RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE KIDNEY. AU - STRAKE, LT. AU - VANDERHEM, GK. AU - HOOIJKAAS, JAP. AU - POPPEMA, S. AU - BROUWERVANHERWIJNEN, AA. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. M3 - Article. VL - 53. SP - 198. EP - 202. JO - Diagnostic imaging in clinical medicine. JF - Diagnostic imaging in clinical medicine. SN - 0254-881X. IS - 4. ER

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging 1,2 is now an established tool in clinical imaging and competes favourably with conventional X-ray computerized tomography (CT) scanning 3 . The drive behind NMR imaging has primarily been in the area of whole-body imaging, which has been limited clinically to fields of up to 1.5 T (60 MHz) Parasagittal magnetic resonance images were used to measure intervertebral foraminal heights at all lumbar levels. Values were statistically analyzed and the significance of differences in the means of foraminal heights at different levels in every age group and among age groups was determined Nuclear magnetic resonance systems have short analysis times of less than 2 min per sample. However, this technique is quite sensitive to temperatures changes, requiring low room-temperatures to produce accurate results, and sample sizes should be very small, which requires sample destruction in some cases Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging: a review 1 Richard G Henderson BSC MRCP NMR Unit. Department ofDiagnostic Radiology Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London Wi20HS X-ray computed tomography (CT) has now been available for ten years, but the last thre Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a non-invasive method of imaging in vivo of the concentration and relaxation times of the mobile protons in bodies. It yields morphological and sometimes physiological information on patients. After recalling the principle of NMR we describe the methodology of obtention of spatially localized signals and present examples of images of clinical interest

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation of human breast tissue: preliminary clinical trials. Radiology. 1982 Apr; 143 (1):195-205. [Google Scholar] Smith FW, Hutchison JM, Mallard JR, Reid A, Johnson G, Redpath TW, Selbie RD. Renal cyst or tumour? Differentiation by whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Diagn Imaging FREE Physics revision notes on Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI). Designed by the teachers at SAVE MY EXAMS for the CIE A Level Physics 2019-21 (9702) syllabus

Nuclear magnetic resonance - Wikipedi

Chapter 3 - Nuclear magnetic resonance. from Part I - An overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Richard B. Buxton, University of California, San Diego. Publisher: Cambridge University Press Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging is a widely used noninvasive medical imaging technique to visualize the inner part of human body. It applied the basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which provides both chemical and physical information of molecules 1Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Anne Leroy-Willig and Danielle Geldwerth-Feniger 1.0 Introduction Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detects the mag-netic moments of nuclei using their orientation in a strong magnetic field and their response at a specific resonance frequency. Discovered in 1946 by Bloc Nuclear magnetic resonance (including MRI) can measure five parameters - chemical shift, motion, SD, T 1, and T 2. The latter three are the main parameters determining image contrast of most clinical images. The relative influence of each on a particular image is determined by pulse sequences, a series of RF and magnetic gradient pulses set up. Questions pertaining to proton nuclear magnetic resonance If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked

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What is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging? (with pictures

Synonyms for Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. 1 synonym for magnetic resonance imaging: MRI. What are synonyms for Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging Nuclear magnetic resonance was first described by the physicist Isidor Rabi (1898-1988) in 1938. In 1944, Rabi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this work. In 1946, Felix Bloch (1905-1983) and Edward Mills Purcell (1912-1997) expanded the technique for use on liquids and solids. For this they shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1952

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging— Technology for the

MRI imaging equipment uses magnetic fields to align the hydrogen atoms that are present in water. In nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a machine called a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer is used to obtain information about the type, number, and arrangement of nuclei within a given sample Browse 70 nuclear magnetic resonance stock photos and images available, or search for nmr or mass spectrometer to find more great stock photos and pictures. Three Dimensional Image Of The Brain, Calculated On The Basis Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging And A Functional Magnetoencephalographymeg

Magnetic resonance imaging - Wikipedi

核磁気共鳴画像法(かくじききょうめいがぞうほう、英: magnetic resonance imaging 、MRI)とは、核磁気共鳴(英: nuclear magnetic resonance 、NMR)現象を利用して生体内の内部の情報を画像にする方法である。 磁気共鳴映像法ともい Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an important tool in drug research, since it can quantify and spatially resolve binding of drugs to pathogens. Within the HiSCORE project, research teams of. For the 'Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research' we created this arty science video.What is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and what can we do with it? Th.. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 02-01 The Basics. ften images taken for medical purposes look similar; one easily re­cog­ni­zes that they show the same part of human anatomy. However, the in­for­ma­tion contained in them as well as their spatial resolution is dif­fe­rent

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging - WU

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), are techniques that doctors use to give a visual representation of soft tissue inside the body.Magnetic resonance uses nuclear magnetic resonance to generate these images.. To take an MRI image, the patient lies on a movable bed. The bed enters a strong magnetic field and then radio waves are applied for a short. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of amyloid plaques is a powerful non-invasive approach for the early and accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) along with clinical observations of behavioral changes and cognitive impairment. The present article aims at giving a critical and comprehensive rev Recent Review Article

Media in category Magnetic resonance imaging. The following 174 files are in this category, out of 174 total. -2018-11-18 MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) Unit, Cromer and district Hospital, Mill Road, Cromer.JPG 5,152 × 3,864; 4.81 MB. 100325 RS88UH 11 qc.gif 480 × 480; 141 KB On this site, in the early 1970s, Paul C. Lauterbur demonstrated that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) could be used to generate images of macroscopic objects. In the years following, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been refined as a technique for the detailed resolution of internal structures Encouraged by the imaging results, in 1978, the Dutch Central Laboratory formed a proton project research team, which developed a 0.15T nuclear magnetic resonance system, and on December 3, 1980, obtained the first human head MRI image (Figure 3) and the first image after the second-dimensional Fourier transform (July 30, 1981, Figure 4) Nuclear magnetic resonance is a method of physical observation in which nuclei in a strong constant magnetic field are perturbed by a weak oscillating magnetic field and respond by producing an electromagnetic signal with a frequency characteristi..

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Hornak - - Major

Abstract. A method of imaging a body by nuclear magnetic resonance wherein volume scanning of a region of the body is achieved by scanning a first planar slice of the region and at least one further slice of the region in the relaxation time for the scan of the first slice Edward Purcell and Felix Bloch discovered the basic of spectroscopy in 1946 (see MRI History). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR Spectroscopy or MRS) is an analytical tool, based on nuclei that have a spin (nuclei with an odd number of neutrons and/or protons) like 1H, 13C, 17O, 19F, 31P etc.. Through nuclear magnetic principles as precession, chemical shift, spin spin coupling etc.

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of tumour growth and

Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance detects the presence of hydrogens (protons) by subjecting them to a large magnetic field to partially polarize the nuclear spins, then exciting the spins with properly tuned radio frequency (RF) radiation, and then detecting weak radio frequency radiation from them as they relax from this magnetic interaction A nuclear magnetic resonance imaging apparatus associated with heat treatment means (45) and arranged to examine material subjected to heat treatment. The heat treatment means may be automatically controlled in dependence on any output produced by the imaging means, and/or manually controlled by an operator viewing a visual display (33) produced by the imaging means

(PDF) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging- Technology for

that magnetic resonance imaging using phase and frequency encoding, and the Fourier Transform in 1975 which is based on the present technique of MRI. After a couple of years there were other scientist have got different ideas among all Raymond Damadian proved MRI is field-focusing nuclear magnetic resonance Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) When a nucleus that possesses a magnetic moment (such as a hydrogen nucleus 1 H, or carbon nucleus 13 C) is placed in a strong magnetic field, it will begin to precess, like a spinning top. What we can learn from NMR spectra Resonance means the materials can absorb and then re-radiate RF radiation at a specific frequency, like a radio receiver-transmitter, as illustrated in Figure 3-1. It is actually the nuclei of the atoms that resonate. The phenomenon is generally known as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Medical imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance - a review of the Aberdeen physical and biological approach J Mallard, J Hutchison, M Foster, W A Edelstein, C Ling, A. Smith, R Reid, G Selbie, Glyn Johnson , T Redpat Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Jeffrey A. Fessler EECS Department The University of Michigan NSS-MIC: Fundamentals of Medical Imaging Oct. 20, 2003. Fessler, Univ. of Michigan NMR-1 Outline Background Basic physics 4 magnetic elds Bloch equation Excitation Signal equation and k-spac

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in the

Diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to detect early ischemia-related alterations in experimental stroke. This raises the question of whether the observed increase in signal intensity is correlated with changes in cerebral metabolism The principles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are based on the fundamentals of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) which is used to obtain structural and physical information on chemical compounds. This magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) spectroscopic technique is based on the absorption and emission of energy of the electromagnetic spectrum in the radiofrequency range (20 kHz to 300 GHz)

02-08 The Magnetic Resonance Signal To excite a spin system, one can expose the spins to a continuous elec­tro­mag­ne­tic wave of the right frequency. However, the method most commonly chosen for excitation of atomic nuclei in a magnetic field is to apply radiowaves of high in­ten­si­ty during a short period of time ( pulsed magnetic resonance ) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of CT -Isodense Subdural Hematomas Kirk L. Moon, Jr.,1 Michael Brant-Zawadzki,1 Lawrence H. Pitts,2 and Catherine M. Mills1 Although computed tomography (CT) is an accurate means of diagnosing subdural hematoma [1], 10%-25% of these lesions are isodense relative to underlying brain tissue, an Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging in sarcoidosis. Mañá, Juan MD. Author Information . Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Department of Internal Medicine, Bellvitge Hospital, Barcelona, Spain Micro‐imaging based on nuclear magnetic resonance offers the possibility to map metabolites in plant tissues non‐invasively. Major metabolites such as sucrose and amino acids can be observed with high spatial resolution. Stable isotope tracers,. magnetic resonance as the leading vehicle of detection of diseases.2 Since then, magnetic resonance imaging as well as nuclear magnetic resonance research has come a long way, but the basic physics behind NMR has remained the same. Nuclear magnetic resonance is achieved by placing nuclei in a static magnetic field, Bo